CANCER OR NEOPLASTIC DISEASES
Written By – Amruta Shinde
What is Cancer ?
Neoplasm – New growth
Neoplasm is a medical term for cancer or tumor i.e a relatively autonomous growth of tissue . This leads to abnormal growth or mass of tissue which may be Benign (not life threatening ) or Malignant ( life threatening)
In Benign tumors there is no metastasis but in Malignant tumors there is metastasis , i.e secondary growth originating from primary tumor anywhere else in the body.
◆ Type of tissue involved-
- Fibroma (tissue involved is fibrous tissue),
- Chondroma (tissue involved is cartilage tissue),
- Adenoma (tissue involved is glandular tissue)
- Lymphoma (tissue involved is lymph tissue ).
1) Carcinoma : cancer that arises from Ectoderm or Endoderm at tissue. (Ectoderm involve skin and it’s appendages, nerve tissue. Endoderm involves intestinal system and organs).
2) Sarcoma : cancer that arises from Mesodermal tissue. (Mesodermal involve bone, muscles, cartilage and related tissue).
3) Teratoma : cancer that arises from cell of Ectoderm, Endoderm or Mesoderm.
4) Blastoma : certain types of cancer/tumors that have primitive appearance resembling embryonic structure. e.g. Neuroblastoma of nerve tissue, myoplasma of muscle tissue .
5) Cancer of Blood : there are two types,
Leukaemia i.e. WBC count more than 105 to 106 per mm3(normal WBC count is 7500 per mm3 ) and Polycythemia i.e. increase in RBC count.
CAUSES OF CANCER –
1) Changes in genetic makeup : Addition of new genetic material . I.e Mutation
e.g -Hepatitis B – Hepatic cancer , HTLV 1 – Leukaemia.
2) Changed gene expression : A cells genetic information is not fixed but used according to condition . if there are persistent changes in the way a cell use this genetic makeup And tumor may be formed .
e.g – Luko adenocarcinoma . Epigenetic factor are hormonal action , co- carcinogens , tumor promoting effect . they are not carcinogenic themselves but increase likely hood of mutations which may causes cancer .
3) Different Chemical that are carcinogenic : – Asbestos (long term exposure by inhalation) Be, Cd, Cr, Pb as compound , many drug.
Cigarette smoke, Shale oil, coal tar. Dye stuff chemicals . e.g. Aromatic amines .
Plant product e.g. Safrole from sassafras root, cycasin from cycad nuts .
◆ Top 5 Institutes For Free Cancer Treatments
1. TATA MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, MUMBAI
Fighting cancer can be taxing—physically, emotionally as well as financially.
Fortunately, there are cancer care centers in India that provide free treatment to patients with the help of donations and government schemes, and here is a list of such institutes:
Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai: Tata Memorial Hospital in Mumbai tops the list of best and most advanced cancer treatment centres in India. It takes pride in providing free care to around 70% of its cancer patients. Being at the forefront of cancer research, Tata Memorial is known for its Advanced Center for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC).
Tata Memorial Hospital, Dr. E Borges Road, Parel, Mumbai – 400 012 India. Tel. +91-22- 24177000, 24146750 – 55 Fax: +91-22-24146937
2. Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore
Armed with sophisticated machines and modern infrastructure, the Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology is one of the most reputed institutes for cancer treatment in the country. It is funded by the Indian government and provides free-of-cost treatment to people living below the poverty line. Compared to market rates, the cancer medicines sold at Kidwai Memorial Institute are at least 40 to 60 percent cheaper.
Address: KMIO Campus, Dr M H Mariagowda Road, Near Bangalore Dairy, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560029
Phone: 080 2609 4000
3. Tata Memorial Hospital, Kolkata
Tata Memorial Hospital in Kolkata is also dedicated to bringing down the price of cancer treatment and drugs and has its doors open for the disadvantaged section of the society battling with this deadly disease.
Address – 14 MAR (E-W), New Town, Rajarhat, Kolkata 700 160E-mail: [email protected] Phone: +91 33 6605 7000
4. Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapuram
RCC is famed for its work in clinical research as well as its pioneering work in providing free treatment to cancer patients with limited financial means. Its policies have given children and poor people access to modern oncology services at no cost. Even modern facilities like isotope and CT scanning and chemotherapy are offered for free.
Address: Medical College Campus, Medical College Road, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695011
Phone: 0471 244 2541
5.Cancer Care Foundation of India, Mumbai
For those seeking alternative and complementary therapies to combat cancer or side effects of other cancer treatments, CCFI’s centre in Mumbai provides free treatments. They use the principles of Ayurveda, yoga and cow urine therapy along with diet and nutritional consultancy to cancer patients.
Address: 5 Shradha Bulding , Ground floor Zerbai Wadia Marg, Near Tata Cancer Hospital Parel- Mumbai-12, Greater Mumbai, Maharashtra 400014
Phone: 093211 64755